Category Archives: Uncategorized

Special issue of Ethnopolitics published

picThe CITSEE team is pleased to announce the publication of a special issue of the journal “Ethnopolitics” dedicated to “Uneven Citizenship: Minorities and Migrants in the Post-Yugoslav Space”. It contains an introduction and five articles on various aspects of uneven citizenship practices in the region. This special issue of Ethnopolitics comes out of the second phase of research conducted within the CITSEE project. These thematic and comparative articles have been written within the framework of a distinct CITSEE research cluster – “Citizenship, Minorities and Migrations” – to which all the authors belong.

In their Introduction, Gëzim Krasniqi and Dejan Stjepanović briefly present the overarching theme of the paper – relations between citizenship and various manifestations of diversity including, but going beyond, ethnicity – addressed through the introduction of the notion of uneven citizenship. According to them, by referring to uneven citizenship the special issue not only engages with exclusionary legal, political and social practices but also other unanticipated or unaccounted for results of citizenship policies.

Biljana Đorđević’s article Whose Rights, Whose Return? The Boundary Problem and Unequal Restoration of Citizenship in the Post-Yugoslav Space addresses the right to return as a right that should be upheld as one of the political principles for mitigation of the boundary problem in post-conflict societies. Restoration of citizenship pursued through justified politics of return contributes to democratic reconstitution of post-conflict societies. The paper contends that in post-Yugoslav space, however, the politics of return of refugees, internally displaced persons, diaspora and deportspora can be charged with promoting some forms of citizenship inequality, preferring some citizens over others and impeding or effectively blocking the return of those who are not desirable.

The article Claimed Co-ethnics and Kin-State Citizenship in Southeastern Europe by Dejan Stjepanović introduces the often neglected concept of ‘claimed co-ethnics’ in the analysis of citizenship policies. It argues that this is an interstitial category that further complicates the triadic nexus between national minorities, nationalising states and kin-states. The ‘claimed co-ethnics’ are defined as people who are recognised by the citizenship (or ethnizenship) conferring state as belonging to its main ethnic group, although they themselves do not embrace that definition. In addition to bringing the issue of claimed co-ethnics into focus, the paper elucidates how citizenship policies can affect groups that challenge the exact fit between ethnicity and nation, showing how national governments through particular citizenship policies and categorisation practices engage in the construction of these groups. The paper shows that the triadic nexus framework, which has had a strong influence on citizenship and minorities scholarship, needs to be revised to include unidirectional relations between the elements of the triadic nexus. The paper is based on the comparison between the cases of ethnic Vlachs (in the context of Albania and Greece) and Bunjevci (in the context of Serbia and Croatia).

In her article Romani Minorities and Uneven Citizenship Access in the Post-Yugoslav Space Julija Sardelić discusses the position of Romani minorities in the light of the state dissolution and further citizenship regime transformations after the disintegration of the former Socialist Yugoslavia. While observing closely the repositioning of the Romani minorities in the post-Yugoslav space, it explicates that in the case of state dissolution, the unevenness of citizenship does not only manifest in the rights dimension, but also in uneven access to citizenship with regard to new polities.

Viktor Koska’s Refugee Integration and Citizenship Policies: The Case Study of Croatian Serbs in Vojvodina examines the integration experiences of Serb refugees who left Croatia during the 1990s and sought protection in Serbia. By focusing on access to citizenship and alternative legal statuses as determinants of specific integration outcomes, the paper argues that integration represents a more complex process than the one consisting solely in an adjustment to cultural, economic, legal, political and social conditions in the host country. The context within which refugees exercise their agency during the process of integration is not determined solely by the environment of the host state, but is constructed by legal remedies that are at the disposition of the refugees in their state of origin, possibilities to restore the networks they left behind and feelings of personal identity that are associated with the previous home. In this process, the paper argues, citizenship policies play a complex role for they define the areas of social life in which refugees can legally act, define the nature and the scope of access to material remedies necessary for the restoration of economic livelihood in the new environment, and play an important role in the process of identity self-construction.

Gëzim Krasniqi’s article Equal Citizens, Uneven Communities: Differentiated and Hierarchical Citizenship in Kosovo argues that the mismatch between the idea of a ‘liberal’ state and the practice of group differentiation, on the one hand, and the socio-political reality that emerged in the post-war period, on the other, has resulted in a citizenship regime that is hierarchical. It aims to demonstrate how despite the legally enshrined promise of equality, differentiated citizenship, together with a political context defined by an ethnic divide and past structural inequalities, as well as uneven external citizenship opportunities, contributed to the emergence of hierarchical citizenship, in which some groups (communities), or ‘rights-and-duty-bearing units’, are more equal than the others.

The CITSEE team is very pleased to see the fruits of its work published so soon after the project’s formal end in December 2014. We would like to thank all the researchers, anonymous reviewers and journal editors for their outstanding commitment and cooperation.

You can follow CITSEE’s website www.citsee.ed.ac.uk, twitter feed (@citseeteam) and  Facebook page for news items with details of fresh publications.

CITSEE’s PI, Professor Jo Shaw, receives Chancellor’s Award for Research

AwardCITSEE Team is pleased to announce that Prof Jo Shaw received the Chancellor’s Award for Research.

Prof Shaw was presented with the prestigious award by the Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, HRH the Princess Royal, at a ceremony held on 9 September 2014.

The award recognises Prof Shaw’s outstanding contributions to research, including the CITSEE project, which she has successfully led since 2009.

The CITSEE Team would like to use the opportunity to congratulate Prof Shaw on this great achievement and wish her continued success.

CITSEE Updates

The CITSEE team is pleased to announce the publication of a new working paper in its Working Paper Series on citizenship regimes in post-Yugoslav states.

Citizenship as lived experience: belonging and documentality after the breakup of Yugoslavia by Jelena Vasiljevic focuses on personal narratives that reveal lived experiences of the triangular relationship between citizenship, identity and (national) belonging in the post-Yugoslav space. Its aim is to shed some light on a less examined perspective of citizenship transformations, and to complement the currently existing literature on citizenship regimes in the post-Yugoslav states with a bottom-up approach that treats citizenship in its identity-forming and recognition-bearing social role. This is the last short study that CITSEE will publish and offers a new dimension to our work, by drawing on the lives of individuals affected by successive disintegrations after Yugoslavia.

Our web magazine Citizenship in Southeast Europe also features a new photo-reportage on The rise and fall of a women’s factory: the Sana textile factory in Bosanski Novi/Novi Grad by Chiara Bonfiglioli. It depicts the rise and fall of the Sana textile factory, located in Bosanski Novi, at the crossroads of the rivers Una and Sana, in Bosnia-Herzegovina, at the border with Croatia.

Finally, the set of eight short documentary films, each focusing on a specific citizenship-related theme from South East Europe, shown at CITSEE’s 5th birthday on 31st of March 2014 and available on our web magazine, as well as our Vimeo and YouTube channel, continue to attract the attention of the wider audience. So far, they have been viewed and downloaded more than 5,000 times.

You can follow CITSEE’s work via the website www.citsee.ed.ac.uk, the web magazine Citizenship in Southeast Europe, on twitter (@citseeteam) and on Facebook.

CITSEE releases 8 documentaries about citizenship in South East Europe

Since 1 April 2009 CITSEE has been researching citizenship laws and policies in the new states of South East Europe. We have been putting the results of our research online on our website www.citsee.ed.ac.uk whilst also trying to present our research in accessible and attractive ways. At the centre of this is our innovative web magazine, “Citizenship in South East Europe” (www.citsee.eu) which has so far published more than 100 interviews, stories, studies, blogs, animations and videos, and become a vital source of information about the region.

In its last phase CITSEE embarked on an exciting project whose goal was to offer its researchers and collaborators new ways of disseminating their work through short documentary films. The result is a set of eight short documentary films, each focusing on a specific citizenship-related theme from South East Europe. The films can be viewed freely on our web magazine, vimeo and youtube, and were shown at CITSEE’s 5th birthday on 31st of March 2014.

All the films are directed and post-produced by Yorgos Karagiannakis (Pitch Dark productions) and produced by CITSEE.

Plurinational and Multinational Regionalism after Yugoslavia

What constitutes and defines membership in multiethnic regions in the post-Yugoslav space? By focusing on the regions of Istria in Croatia, and Vojvodina in Serbia, the film explores the differences between ‘plurinational’ and ‘multinational’ regionalism and tackles the question of sub-state citizenship.

Written and narrated by Dejan Stjepanovic

Feminist Activists in Yugoslavia and after

What does it mean to be an activist and a feminist in the state(s) where citizenship regimes changed at least three times in one-person lifetime? The film offers a historic overview of feminist activism in Yugoslavia and its successor states from the Second World War, via the disintegration of Yugoslavia until today.

Written and narrated by Adriana Zaharijevic

The strange case of country K.

This video presents the case of K*, a country that remains internally divided, contested and isolated even after 15 years after the end of the war, and 6 years after it declared independence.

Written and narrated by Gezim Krasniqi

Silenced Voices: Romani minorities in Yugoslavia and after

The position of Roma as citizens of socialist Yugoslavia and post-Yugoslav states is the focus of this film. It depicts how the situation of Romani minorities changed in the post-Yugoslav settings and how new citizenship regimes further marginalised this group, turning its members into true post-Yugoslav ‘subalterns’.

Written and narrated by Julija Sardelic

 The Last Yugoslav Generation

‘The Last Yugoslav Generation’ reflects on the generational critique of late Yugoslav socialism articulated by the youth cultural scene in the 1980s. Through interview excerpts it addresses their sense of ‘layered Yugoslavness’, as well as a sense of loss and betrayal after the end of socialism and Yugoslavia.

Written and narrated by Ljubica Spaskovska

Citizens in the Making: Post-Yugoslav Students and Teachers

This documentary explores how in post-Yugoslav states civic education has been overshadowed by the ethnocentric structures of the education systems, policies and curricula, paradoxically on the pretext of promoting multicultural education. These curricula are largely delivered by teachers who had been influenced by the past values of ‘brotherhood and unity’. The films shows how young citizens’ identities are partly shaped by the education structures, but also by the way teachers position themselves in relation to these structures – both as agents of change and of continuity.

Written and narrated by Natasa Pantic

Where have all the workers gone?

The film tells the tale of textile workers in post-Yugoslav states. The garment industry was very successful in socialist times, and employed thousands of workers, particularly women. After the Yugoslav break-up and post-socialist transition, however, the industry underwent a process of economic decline and deindustrialization. Textile workers in the former Yugoslavia faced factory closures, job losses and exploitative working conditions, thus losing the social security and social rights experienced during socialism.

Written and narrated by Chiara Bonfiglioli

Politics of Return: no country for an old home

After a conflict there is often disagreement about who ‘belongs’ to the people – who is still a citizen. This film explores the acute struggles that take place over the right of return of people displaced by conflict, and the way in which their inclusion or exclusion may be motivated by political considerations.

Written and narrated by Biljana Djordjevic

To find out more about the CITSEE project (The Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia), see www.citsee.eu, www.citsee.ed.ac.uk and CITSEE TV.     

CITSEE: 8 new working papers on various aspects of citizenship in Southeast Europe

The CITSEE team is pleased to announce the publication of eight new papers in its Working Paper Series on citizenship regimes in post-Yugoslav states. These thematic and comparative papers have been written within the framework of two distinct CITSEE research clusters – “Gender and Citizenship” and “Citizenship, Minorities and Migrations” – that all the authors belong to. These clusters represent closely-knit groups that share a methodology and have been developing these papers as part of their respective joint research projects.

Thus, to begin with “Gender and Citizenship” cluster, Katja Kahlina’s working paper “Contested terrain of sexual citizenship: EU accession and the changing position of sexual minorities in the post-Yugoslav context” traces the transformation of sexual citizenship in the context of the European Union accession process in post-Yugoslav space. While looking at the dynamic interplay between the competing visions of nation and national community, EU accession process, and the citizenship status of sexual minorities in these three states, the paper argues that, rather than representing an unambiguously liberating force, EU accession in the post-Yugoslav context has facilitated the turning of sexual citizenship into a contested terrain where struggles over ‘Europeanness’, liberal pluralism, and national identity take place.

Oliwia Berdak’s working paper “War, Gender and Citizenship in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia” compares the position of veterans of the Yugoslav Wars 1991-1995 in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia in order to explore the interaction between war, gender and citizenship. The paper argues that the results for veterans who all participated in the same conflict have been very different depending on which army they joined, and which war narrative prevailed in their place of residence. This war was masculinised in discourse and practice, creating gendered post-war social citizenship in the cases where the citizen-soldier has been rewarded.

The working paper “Gendering Social Citizenship: Textile Workers in post-Yugoslav States” by Chiara Bonfiglioli, on the other hand, analyses social citizenship in post-Yugoslav states from a gendered perspective. It explores the parallel transformations of citizenship regimes and gender regimes on the basis of the case study of the textile industry, a traditionally “feminised” industrial sector in which employment rates have significantly declined in the last twenty years. By comparing the cases of Leskovac (Serbia) and Štip (Macedonia), the paper shows that transformations in social citizenship had profound implications when it comes to gender regimes. The “retraditionalisation” of gender relations in the post-Yugoslav region, therefore, is not only a consequence of nationalist discourses, but is also a direct result of transformations in social citizenship which occurred during the post-socialist transition.

In the working paper “Being an Activist: Feminist citizenship through transformations of Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes”, Adriana Zaharijević attempts to connect relevant investigations in feminist citizenship, its meaning and scope, with the alterations of citizenship regimes in the former Yugoslavia and its successor states. The paper argues that feminist citizenship has to be seen as both an effect of deep changes in citizenship regimes, but also as a constant challenge to their sedimentation. The paper thus seeks to offer an alternative reading of history of feminism in Yugoslavia and its successor states, relying mainly on the concepts of activist citizenship and citizenship regimes. It will also show that with the changes in citizenship regime the frames of interpretation change as well, changing the meaning of feminism as a political force

On the other hand, as regards the ‘Citizenship, Minorities and Migrations” cluster, Dejan Stjepanović’s paper, “‘Perceived Co-Ethnics’ and Kin-State Citizenship in Southeastern Europe” explores the often neglected ‘perceived co-ethnics’ in the analysis of citizenship policies. The paper argues this is an interstitial category that further complicates the triadic nexus between national minorities, nationalizing states and kin-states. Apart from bringing the perceived co-ethnics issue into the focus, the paper elucidates citizenship policies affecting groups that challenge the exact fit between ethnicity and nation; showing how national governments through particular citizenship policies and categorisation practices engage in construction of groups. The paper shows that the triadic nexus framework which has had a strong influence on citizenship and minorities scholarship needs to be revised in some aspects and include unidirectional relations between the elements of the triadic nexus. The paper is based on the comparison between the cases of ethnic Vlachs and Bunjevci in the context of Albania, Croatia, Greece and Serbia.

In the working paper “Politics of Return, Inequality and Citizenship in the Post-Yugoslav Space” Biljana Ɖorđević argues that the right to return should be upheld as a political principle for mitigation of the boundary problem – who belongs to demos. Restoration of citizenship pursued through justified politics of return contributes to the democratic reconstitution of post-conflict societies. In the post-Yugoslav space, however, politics of return of refugees, internally displaced persons, diaspora, and deportspora can be charged with promoting some forms of citizenship inequality, preferring some citizens over others and impeding or effectively blocking the return of those thought undesirable.

The working paper “Romani Minorities on the Margins of Post-Yugoslav Citizenship Regimes” by Julija Sardelić aims at mapping how Romani minorities were positioned in the context of post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes’ transformations and to observe possible trends throughout post-Yugoslav space regarding their positioning. The paper establishes that due to historical as well as contemporary hierarchical inclusions, many individuals identified as belonging to Romani minorities faced specific obstacles in access to citizenship in most Yugoslav states, where they de facto resided. Consequently, it gives an illustration of citizenship constellations in which many Romani individuals found themselves as non-citizens at their place of residence and usually without the status of legal alien with permanent residence as well as with ineffective citizenship of another post-Yugoslav state. Additionally, it also examines the hierarchical positioning of Romani individuals, who are citizens at their place of residence and, at least de iure, enjoy a certain scope of minority rights.

Gëzim Krasniqi’s paper on “Equal citizens, uneven ‘communities’: differentiated and hierarchical citizenship in Kosovo” uses the case of citizenship in Kosovo to show how despite the constitutionally and legally enshrined promise of equality, differentiated citizenship together with a political context defined by an ethnic divide and past structural inequalities, as well as uneven external citizenship opportunities, contributed to the emergence of hierarchical citizenship, where some groups (communities), or ‘rights-and-duty-bearing units’, are ‘more equal than the others’. The paper argues that the hierarchy exists not only between the core or dominant community (Albanians) and the non-dominant communities, but between the latter as well.

This brings the number of working papers produced so far by CITSEE researchers and associated scholars to 33, and shows our increased focus on thematic and comparative studies.

You can follow CITSEE’s work via the website www.citsee.ed.ac.uk, the web magazine Citizenship in South East Europe, on twitter (@citseeteam) and on Facebook.

New publication: Citizenship Rights by Jo Shaw and Igor Stiks

In today’s world all claims tend to be founded on or justified by ‘rights’, be they political, social, economic or private. The ubiquity of this discourse has led to a blurring of the definition of what exactly constitutes rights, not to mention a blurring of the boundaries between different bundles of rights, their sources and the various institutional practices through which they are ‘enjoyed’ or asserted. Particular attention needs to be paid to the category of ‘citizenship rights’. Exactly how are they distinguished from human rights?

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This volume presents some of the most important reflections and studies on citizenship rights, both past and present. The contributions provide both thorough description and incisive analysis and place the question of citizenship rights into a wider historical, social and political perspective. As such, it offers a timely introduction to the current debates surrounding the rights and duties of both citizens and non-citizens alike, with a focus on the many ways in which citizenship is contested in the contemporary world. The volume is invaluable to scholars and students of citizenship studies, political and critical theory, human rights, sociology, urban development and law.

The anthology ‘Citizenship Rights’ includes contributions by, among others, Etienne Balibar, Zygmunt Bauman, Seyla Benhabib, Will Kymlicka, Rainer Baubock, Yasemin Soysal, Engin Isin, Carole Pateman, Saskia Sassen, Nancy Fraser and David Harvey.

The introduction titled ‘What do we talk about when we talk about citizenship rights?’ by Jo Shaw and Igor Stiks is available for download here.

To order the book, click here.

 

CITSEE studies on Citizenship after Yugoslavia published by Routledge

CITSEE is pleased to announce that Routledge has recently published the volume “Citizenship after Yugoslavia” edited by Jo Shaw and Igor Štiks.

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This book is the first comprehensive examination of the citizenship regimes of the new states that emerged out of the break up of Yugoslavia. It covers both the states that emerged out of the initial disintegration across 1991 and 1992 (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Macedonia), as well as those that have been formed recently through subsequent partitions (Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo). While citizenship has often been used as a tool of ethnic engineering to reinforce the position of the titular majority in many states, in other cases citizenship laws and practices have been liberalised as part of a wider political settlement intended to include minority communities more effectively in the political process. Meanwhile, frequent (re)definitions of these increasingly overlapping regimes still provoke conflicts among post-Yugoslav states.

This volume shows how important it is for the field of citizenship studies to take into account the main changes in and varieties of citizenship regimes in the post-Yugoslav states, as a particular case of new state citizenship. At the same time, it seeks to show scholars of (post) Yugoslavia and the wider Balkans that the Yugoslav crisis, disintegration and wars as well as the current functioning of the new and old Balkan states, together with the process of their integration into the EU, cannot be fully understood without a deeper understanding of their citizenship regimes.

The book’s contribution to the study of these issues has been praised by a number of distinguished scholars, among them Jacques Rupnik, of Sciences Po – Paris / CERI.

“This examination of the ways in which citizenship has been reclaimed, suppressed, violated, and redefined provides a crucial and much neglected insight into what happened to the inhabitants of former Yugoslavia over the last two decades. This study — of broader significance beyond the case of the Balkans — reveals what happens to citizens and political communities when a multinational federal state disintegrates and new nation-states are being built under close scrutiny of another would-be federal project in the making. Shaw and Štiks’ volume provides a most valuable contribution to the subject combining a European perspective with the view from within.”

Aleš Debeljak, of the University of Ljubljana, was equally fulsome in his praise.

“This collection of essays on the vicissitudes of citizenship in the successor-states to Yugoslavia is a timely reminder of the pernicious consequences the ethnicisation of political membership has for individuals and for communities. The varieties of citizenship experience are here illuminated with a passionate, yet scholarly debate about the possibilities of multiple and overlapping forms of citizenship in a multi-ethnic federal state, informed as they are with the collapse of the country that tried out many models before giving way to ethnic singularity and the attendant closing of the Yugoslav mind. These specific lessons from the Yugoslav past read at times as disturbing premonitions of the European future, urging us to look into ways of political membership with a reason and emphatic solidarity.”

The volume contains studies that previously appeared in the special issue of Citizenship Studies dedicated to “Citizenship in the new states of South Eastern Europe”.

You can order the book directly by contacting the publisher.

If you would like to recommend this book for purchase by your library, a library recommendation form is available here.

New EUDO e-Book on Inclusive Democracy in Europe published

The European Union Democracy Observatory (EUDO) Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies in the European University Institute, has published a new eBook containing the contributions from the 2011 EUDO Dissemination Conference on Inclusive Democracy in Europe, and the EUDO Citizenship Online Forum Debate on National Voting Rights for EU Citizens Residing in Other Member States.

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This publication explores the history and nature of migrant political participation in Europe and considers policy options for remedying the democratic deficit in light of the political realities of modern Europe. Academics, policy-makers, and representatives of civil society provide a comprehensive discussion of inclusive democracy in the European Union, considering principles of democracy, conceptions of national and EU citizenship, and the political and institutional practicalities of national and European policy change in particular to offer more voting rights to EU citizens resident in other Member States.

Prof Jo Shaw from the ‘The Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia’ (CITSEE) project has been an active participant in these debates. She contributed a short contribution on ‘Testing the Bonds of Solidarity in Europe’s Common Citizenship Area’ as a chapter in this e-Book.

To download the book, click here.

CITSEE studies on Citizens and Citizenship after Yugoslavia published in Serbian

CITSEE is pleased to announce that CLIO (a Belgrade-based publisher) has recently published the volume “Citizens and Citizenship after Yugoslavia” (Državljani i državljanstvo posle Jugoslavije) edited by Professor Jo Shaw and Dr Igor Štiks. The volume contains the Serbian translations of the studies that previously appeared in the special issue of Citizenship Studies dedicated to “Citizenship in the new states of South Eastern Europe”. The book was promoted in Belgrade in early October in the presence of the editors (for a report in Serbian click here)

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“Citizens and Citizenship after Yugoslavia” is the first comprehensive examination of the citizenship regimes of the new states that emerged out of the break-up of Yugoslavia to appear in Serbian, Bosnian or Croatian. It covers both the states that emerged out of the initial disintegration across 1991 and 1992 (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Macedonia), as well as those that have been formed through subsequent partitions (Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo). The studies demonstrate the ways in which citizenship has often been used as a tool of ethnic engineering to reinforce the position of the titular majority in many of these states. In some cases, citizenship laws and practices have been liberalised as part of a wider political settlement intended to include minority communities more effectively in the political process. Meanwhile, frequent (re)definitions of these increasingly overlapping regimes still provoke conflicts among post-Yugoslav states.

The book’s contribution to the study of these issues has been praised by a number of distinguished scholars, among them Jacques Rupnik, of Sciences Po – Paris / CERI.

“This examination of the ways in which citizenship has been reclaimed, suppressed, violated, and redefined provides a crucial and much neglected insight into what happened to the inhabitants of former Yugoslavia over the last two decades. This study — of broader significance beyond the case of the Balkans — reveals what happens to citizens and political communities when a multinational federal state disintegrates and new nation-states are being built under close scrutiny of another would-be federal project in the making. Shaw and Štiks’ volume provides a most valuable contribution to the subject combining a European perspective with the view from within.”

Aleš Debeljak, of the University of Ljubljana, was equally fulsome in his praise.

“This collection of essays on the vicissitudes of citizenship in the successor-states to Yugoslavia is a timely reminder of the pernicious consequences the ethnicisation of political membership has for individuals and for communities. The varieties of citizenship experience are here illuminated with a passionate, yet scholarly debate about the possibilities of multiple and overlapping forms of citizenship in a multi-ethnic federal state, informed as they are with the collapse of the country that tried out many models before giving way to ethnic singularity and the attendant closing of the Yugoslav mind. These specific lessons from the Yugoslav past read at times as disturbing premonitions of the European future, urging us to look into ways of political membership with a reason and emphatic solidarity.”

To order the book, contact the publisher.

An extended version of the Citizenship Studies special issue will be published by Routledge in November 2012 under the title ‘Citizenship after Yugoslavia’.

Special issue of Citizenship Studies published

The CITSEE team is pleased to announce the publication of a special issue of the journal “Citizenship Studies” dedicated to “Citizenship in the New States of Southeastern Europe”. It contains an introduction and seven comprehensive papers on the existing citizenship regimes across the former Yugoslavia. This special issue of Citizenship Studies comes out of the first phase of research conducted under the aegis of the CITSEE project, during which the research team concentrated on in-depth country case analyses with the aim of giving readers a better understanding of post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes, as seen in their wider political and societal context.

In their Introduction, Jo Shaw and Igor Štiks briefly present the CITSEE project, locating it within the broader frame of current trends in citizenship studies. They define the notion of citizenship regime as it is used in the following analyses, before highlighting some critical and common elements that emerge in the papers, including the ongoing processes of European integration and enlargement evident in the region.

Jelena Vasiljevic’s article Imagining and managing the nation: tracing citizenship policies in Serbia explores the most salient features of the reshaping of the state–territory–nation triangle in Serbia over the last 20 years, through the lenses of its citizenship regime. Her paper looks at the ways in which the dominant political narrative in Serbia has imagined political community and accordingly managed its members.

The article Understanding Montenegrin citizenship by Jelena Džankic maintains that although the citizenship regime of Montenegro was generated amidst domestic political competition, it has also been significantly affected by regional and international political forces. Applying Bellamy's concept of the lineages of citizenship to the case of Montenegro, it explains how citizenship polices were used to manage the fragile political milieu within this weak and unconsolidated post-Yugoslav state.

Gëzim Krasniqi’s article Overlapping jurisdictions, disputed territory, unsettled state: the perplexing case of citizenship in Kosovo examines the nascent citizenship regime in Kosovo since the country's declaration of independence in 2008. It argues that the defining characteristics of the Kosovan citizenship regime are: (1) adoption of the ‘new-state’ model (i.e. inclusion into its citizenship of all Kosovo residents); (2) tension between civic and multicultural conceptions of citizenship on the one side, and ethno-national conceptions on the other; and (3) its contested nature and overlapping jurisdictions.

The article Conceptualising citizenship regime(s) in post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina by Eldar Sarajlic examines the complex citizenship regime in contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina, including its historical origin and social implications. It argues that the Bosnian citizenship regime, established in Dayton in 1995, actually implies existence of a plurality of regimes and conceptions of citizenship in this country, which frames political outcomes and affects the status of human rights.

Ljubica Spaskovska’s article The fractured ‘we’ and the ethno-national ‘I’: the Macedonian citizenship framework discusses some of the salient features of the post-2001 Macedonian citizenship model, understood not only as a legal formula, but also as a social and cultural fact. By using the analytical lens of two competing conceptions of nationhood and citizenship (political vs. ethno-cultural), the article analyses the phenomenon of ‘fractured citizenship’, as reflected in the apparent tension between an official, elite-driven discourse of the Macedonian model of multi-ethnic democracy on the one hand, and diverging ethno-culturally coded initiatives, ideologies and perceptions, on the other.

The article Framing the citizenship regime within the complex triadic nexuses: the case study of Croatia by Viktor Koska provides an analysis of the changes of the Croatian citizenship regime from its independence till today. It argues that over the last two decades, Croatia established a distinctive citizenship regime marked by stable citizenship legislation and changing boundaries of recognized rights for different categorizes of Croatian citizens. The stability of the status dimension of citizenship can be traced to the unchallenged primacy of the nationhood conceived as a transnational community of ethnic Croats.

Finally, Tomaž Deželan’s article In the name of the nation or/and Europe? Determinants of the Slovenian citizenship regime attempts to revise the somewhat distorted image of Slovenia as a ‘success story’ of the transition to modern liberal democracy by explaining how different political visions, and their clashes and coalitions over two decades of independent statehood, influenced the Slovenian citizenship regime, which is rife with undemocratic practices. Drawing on the ‘nationalizing state’ approach, the paper illuminates two dominant political agendas: the nationalizing state agenda and the Europeanizing state agenda. However, both agendas are frequently intertwined and provide legitimacy to political actors across the ideological spectrum depending on the circumstances.

The CITSEE team is very pleased to see the fruits of its work published and thus would like to thank all the researchers, anonymous reviewers and journal editors for their outstanding commitment and cooperation.

You can follow CITSEE's work via the website www.law.ed.ac.uk/citsee, the web magazine Citizenship in Southeast Europe, on twitter (@citseeteam) and on Facebook.