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New CITSEE Working Papers Available

The CITSEE team is pleased to announce the publication of three new papers in its Working Paper Series on citizenship regimes in the former Yugoslav states.

In the working paper “The evolution of the Croatian citizenship regime: from independence to EU integration”, Viktor Koska argues that the Croatian case displays almost all of the typical controversies and challenges associated to the former Yugoslavia successor states’ regimes: ethnic engineering through citizenship policies, state exclusion and self exclusion of ethnic minorities from the core citizenry and liberalisation of the citizenship regime in the light of EU integration. By closely scrutinising the citizenship policies relating to two main target groups, the Croatian diaspora and the Serb minority, this paper argues that the Croatian citizenship regime has evolved through two stages of development over the last two decades: the citizenship debate during the first stage was concerned primarily with the ‘status dimension’ while the debate during the second stage moved towards the ‘rights dimensions’ of citizenship.

Working paper “Citizenship in Slovenia: the regime of a nationalising or a Europeanising state?” by Tomaž Deželan draws on a ‘nationalising state’ approach to demonstrate the nature of membership in Slovenia, a polity that emerged on the ruins of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). By considering the influence of the old regime on the incipient conception of citizenship and the nation-building process, the paper depicts the core dynamic in the field for the last two decades. With explorations of the initial determination of citizenry, the regulation of minorities, dual citizens and refugees, popular attitudes, the political elite’s attitudes towards non-ethnic Slovenes, and the impact of Europe, the paper provides evidence for the primacy of an ethno-cultural conception of membership, which is constrained by the embeddedness of the Slovenian citizenship regime within international and supranational frameworks.

Working paper “Citizenship and belonging in Serbia: in the crossfire of changing nationhood narratives” by Jelena Vasiljevic shows how the changing citizenship regimes in Serbia translate the varying narratives and perceptions of nationhood into the realities of political community. Apart from providing necessary historical context, the paper offers an insight into the important themes and topoi of Serbian nationhood narratives and their legal and political emanations, developments in post-2000 Serbia and changes within the legal framing of citizenship status as well as the changes (or, in some respects, only partial changes) in the overall political climate and the way in which the current citizenship regime and dominant political narrative imagine Serbia’s political community and accordingly deal with groups and identities. The last segment of the paper briefly discusses the impact of Europeanisation taken both as a process of a political transformation and as a new emerging transformative discourse.

This brings the number of working papers produced so far by the CITSEE researchers and associated scholars to 17 and, at the same time, marks the completion of the 7 case studies on citizenship regimes in all states that emerged after Yugoslavia. Some of these papers are the first substantial English-language studies of the subject of citizenship in these states.

Having prepared comprehensive papers on the seven existing citizenship regimes across the former Yugoslavia, which are available for free download on the CITSEE website, the CITSEE researchers are also attempting to provide new original analysis of these ever-changing regimes by placing them in a wider European context. Results of these new case studies will be published in a special issue of “Citizenship studies” journal (forthcoming in early 2012) with the aim of giving readers a better understanding of post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes, as seen in their wider political and societal context.

 

CITSEE is preparing a special issue of “Citizenship Studies” journal for early 2012

On February 18th 2011, the CITSEE team, including researchers based at the University of Edinburgh (Prof Jo Shaw, Dr Igor Stiks, Dr Jelena Dzankic, Jelena Vasiljevic and Gezim Krasniqi) as well as associated researches based elsewhere (Ljubica Spaskovska from the University of Exeter, Tomaz Dezelan from the University of Ljubljana, Viktor Koska from the University of Zagreb, and, via skype link, Eldar Sarajlic from the Central European University), gathered in Edinburgh for a one full day of discussions.

The aim of the meeting was to lay the ground work for a special issue of “Citizenship studies” journal which will aim to give readers a better understanding of post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes, as seen in their wider political and societal context.

More generally, having prepared comprehensive papers on the seven existing citizenship regimes across the former Yugoslavia, which are available for free download on the CITSEE website, the CITSEE researchers are also attempting to provide new original analysis of these ever-changing regimes by placing them in a wider European context.

Presentations of CITSEE research in London

/CITSEE team members Jo Shaw, Igor Stiks, Jelena Dzankic, Jelena Vasiljevic and Gezim Krasniqi presented some early results of the CITSEE project to a variety of audiences in London in early February 2011. These presentations allowed us to build on existing links and collaborations with colleagues in London, and to inform wider academic audiences about the CITSEE research. As the country case study phase of CITSEE is now complete and is being prepared for wider dissemination through a special issue of Citizenship Studies due in early 2012, this was a useful moment at which to solicit feedback on the first phase of CITSEE's work.

The presentations were to LSE Global Governance (1 February), the School of Slavonic and East European Studies at UCL (2 February) and the Centre for the Study of the Balkans at Goldsmiths College (3 February).

 

CITSEE is recruiting for 2011

CITSEE has advertised three one year Research Fellowships starting September/October 2011. Details of the advertisements can be found here, and prospective applicants are strongly encouraged to read the further guidance for applicants which can be accessed here before making an application. The advertisement and further particulars give details of the materials which applicants should submit with their application. Longlisted candidates will additionally be asked to prepare four page research proposals and provide writing samples in English.

This group of Research Fellows will be undertaking comparative projects on aspects of citizenship in South Eastern Europe, with a focus on the successor states of the former Yugoslavia but a potential for casting an eye wider across the rest of the Balkans and the other neighbouring states in order to develop effective comparative frameworks. The work of the Research Fellows will build upon the country case studies completed by the current CITSEE team and published (or to be published) on the CITSEE website.

Prospective applicants can address informal queries to Jo Shaw (jo.shaw@ed.ac.uk) or Igor Stiks (i.stiks@ed.ac.uk).

The firm deadline for applications is 31 January 2011 (5pm UK time) and applications should be made using the University's online system.

CITSEE research presentations in South Eastern Europe

In October 2010, CITSEE researchers Jo Shaw and Igor Stiks presented the CITSEE research at a number of institutions in South Eastern Europe, while travelling around the region making contacts and developing CITSEE’s academic network.

The presentations to students and academic colleagues were held at the Faculty of Political Sciences of the University of Zagreb, the Faculty of Social Sciences and the Faculty of Law (International Forum) of the University of Ljubljana, the Slovene Ethnographical Institute, Ljubljana, and the Faculty of Political Science of the University of Sarajevo. In addition to meetings in these cities, meetings with colleagues were also held in Banja Luka and Tuzla in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

New CITSEE Working Paper Available

The CITSEE team is pleased to announce the publication of the fourteenth paper in its Working Paper Series on citizenship regimes in the former Yugoslav states.

Working paper 2010/14, Lineages of Citizenship in Montenegro, is the result of original research undertaken by CITSEE Researcher Fellow Jelena Dzankic, and builds upon the previous paper published by the same author within our Working Paper Series.

In this paper the author employs Richard Bellamy’s concept of the lineages of citizenship, which analyses the normative aspects of citizenship by looking at interactions between ‘state and society within a given national political community’, in exploring the evolution of citizenship policies in Montenegro. Thus, in unveiling the processes and the context that shaped the Montenegrin citizenship policies at different times, Dzankic examines the active relationship between three major aspects of citizenship: legal, political and identity/emotional.

Following a historical overview of the development of citizenship policies, this paper focuses on the recent political circumstances that have shaped the normative aspects of citizenship. As such, it also triggers questions about what layer of identity the citizenship legislation in fact encapsulates. The final part of the paper examines the multivalence of citizenship in the context of Europeanisation.

Gezim Krasniqi returns to CITSEE team – and CITSEE publishes new working paper on Albania

On 7 October 2010, the CITSEE team published its 13th working paper, an analysis of the Albanian citizenship regime, by Gezim Krasniqi.

The publication of the working paper marks also Gezim Krasniqi's return to the CITSEE team in Edinburgh, where he will be working as a part time research assistant for the coming years, while undertaking PhD studies in the area of nationalism studies in the School of Social and Political Science at the University. The CITSEE team were delighted to have Gezim back and congratulated him on winning an SPS fees scholarship and a scholarship from the Open Society Institute.

Citizenship in Albania is an interesting case, which is crucial to understanding the post-Yugoslav constellation, although it has been an independent state for more than a century. Key milestones en route to the current citizenship regime include the opening of borders after the end of communism in 1991, which led to a massive wave of emigration. It is only since then, and bearing in mind the significant numbers of Albanians now resident outside the territory, that citizenship has gradually entered the political agenda. The prospect of visa liberalisation in relation to the Schengen zone in late 2010 will represent a further step in the modernisation and Europeanisation of the Albanian state. Gezim's paper provides a detailed account of the current citizenship legislation in Albania, which reflects the country’s attempts to democratise and achieve EU membership.

 

CITSEE Working Paper by Professor Andrew Wachtel

Professor Andrew Wachtel, recently appointed President of the American University of Central Asia, on leave from his professorial post at Northwestern University in Chicago, delivered a well received keynote lecture at CITSEE’s June 2010 conference on Theories and Practices of Citizenship in the New Balkan States. His lecture has now been published as a CITSEE Working Paper under the title ‘Citizenship and Belonging: Literary Themes and Variations from Yugoslavia’.

Andrew is a distinguished scholar of slavic (literary) studies, whose books include The Balkans in World History (2008, OUP) and Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia (1998, Stanford University Press). He is also a member of the Advisory Board of the CITSEE project.

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The paper takes a historical and literary approach to emergent conceptions of citizenship, which contrasts with the political and legal approaches which predominate amongst the members of the CITSEE team. Andrew argues that works of literature can be effective tools for understanding the ways in which individuals understand different concepts of citizenship. The paper analyses four leading works of literature from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which with ideas of belonging across time and space. The analysis reveals a dynamic relationship between changing ideas of citizenship and the attitudes of characters, and shows that authors use the depiction of various attitudes to citizenship to explicate their own views on the proper relationship of the individual to the state. We are delighted to welcome this first “guest” contribution to the CITSEE Working Paper Series and look forward to further similar contributions, from a variety of (inter)disciplinary perspectives in the future.

 

New CITSEE Working Paper Available

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The CITSEE team is pleased to announce the publication of the eleventh paper in its Working Paper Series on citizenship regimes in the former Yugoslav states.

Working paper 2010/11, In Search of a Demos: Transformations of Citizenship and Belonging in the Republic of Macedonia, is based on original research by CITSEE Associate Researcher Ljubica Spaskovska. The paper explores transformations in relation to citizenship regimes and belonging in the Republic of Macedonia, and builds upon Spaskovska’s earlier paper published within our working paper series.

The author places her exploration of citizenship and belonging within the framework of five consecutive and at times overlapping phases: the (zero) socialist phase; the consolidation phase; the contestation phase; the intervention phase and the stabilisation phase. She argues that these phases were/are accompanied by a corresponding specific type of citizenship: supranational; abortive ethno-national; ethnizenship and new supranational (European) citizenship. Through analysis of context-specific and regional developments, Spaskovska explores the phenomena of the politicisation of citizenship, minority rights, diaspora and Europeanisation in addition to providing an insight into the different citizenship regimes Macedonia has gone through and the implications of their transformations and amendments at different points in time.

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New CITSEE Working Paper Available

The CITSEE team is proud to announce that yet another working paper on citizenship regimes in the former Yugoslav states is now available.

Only a week after much-anticipated and highly commented ruling of the International Court of Justice that Kosovo’s declaration of independence did not violate general international law (see CITSEE blog on the subject), CITSEE’s working papers series has been enriched with a paper dealing precisely with some key aspects of state-building efforts in Kosovo.

Working paper 2010/10, Citizenship as a Tool of State-Building in Kosovo: Status, Rights and Identity in the new State, is the result of original research undertaken by CITSEE Researcher Gezim Krasniqi, and builds upon the previous paper published by the same author within our working paper series.

The paper examines the emergence of an autonomous citizenship regime in Kosovo, with a particular focus on citizenship as a tool of state-building. It argues that in the case of Kosovo citizenship is meant to serve as a link between a war-torn community of people and a new polity based on principles of equality and all inclusiveness, or, as a tool of political integration within the new political entity, which aims at replacing divisions of ethnicity, religion or social status.

In addition, it looks at the impact of the tension between the ethno-cultural and political aspects of nationhood in the ongoing state-building process in Kosovo, as well as the stateness problem and contested statehood on citizenship policies.

During this summer CITSEE is looking forward to welcoming two further papers, on Macedonia and on Albania.