Monthly Archives: November 2009

CITSEE is recruiting!

CITSEE is seeking a Research Fellow to work on citizenship laws and policies in Serbia. 

Applications are invited for a post of Research Fellow working on a European Research Council funded project on the Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia (CITSEE). As an enthusiastic, articulate and adaptable graduate educated to masters level in law, political science or a related subject, you will bring excellent research, writing and interpersonal skills and a detailed knowledge of South Eastern Europe and/or the former Yugoslavia to the post. You will be principally responsible for preparing a national case study of the citizenship laws and practices of Serbia, but you will also have a range of other responsibilities in relation to the implementation of a major five year project, where you will be working as part of a substantial team based in Edinburgh, led by the Project Leader, Professor Jo Shaw.

The position is full time and is available from 1 April 2010 or soon thereafter for twelve months.

Full details of the post can be found here. The post has been advertised with a firm closing date of 30 November 2009 on the University of Edinburgh vacancies website here and all applications need to be made online via this website. Informal enquiries can be directed to Jo Shaw ( or Igor Stiks (

1989 – Annus Mirabilis and/or Annus Miserabilis, an Award for Ljubica Spaskovska

1989 in fact brought history back on the European stage and we cannot be entirely satisfied about the changes that occurred after the “annus mirabilis”. This was the clear implication of the speech given by Erhard Busek  (Special Co-ordinator of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe from 2002 to 2008) at the “1989 – Images of Change” award giving ceremony in Trieste, Italy. It is not only the Balkans that produces more history than it can consume, but one could say the same about Europe more generally. If the first common French-German history textbook took 61 years to appear (in 2006), the Balkan countries should not take so long in getting to know and understand the views of the others, concluded Erhard Busek. 

On 5 November, “Eustory” – an international association of non-governmental organizations from 22 European countries, awarded 10 European prizes, a special video prize and two national prizes to young Europeans born between 1981-1991 for short research essays submitted and accounts of the year which changed the political, social and cultural spaces in Europe, the ideological map of the world and profoundly influenced the lives of millions of Europeans. Trieste, a fascinating city of shared memories, legacies, shifting borders and an amazing richness of cultures, religions and languages, seemed to be a perfect setting for reflection upon the year which brought further unifications and divides.

Ljubica Spaskovska, a CITSEE research fellow was awarded one of the European prizes for her essay “Annus Mirabilis, Annus Miserabilis – the Yugoslav 1989” (available here). The essay reflected on the specificity of the Yugoslav case, as the demise of state socialism did not lead to the consolidation of a democratic society, but, in the words of Robert Hayden, state socialism was replaced by state chauvinism.

Croatian Citizenship: From Ethnic Engineering to Inclusiveness

The CITSEE team is delighted to announce the publication of a paper on Croatian citizenship co-authored by Francesco Ragazzi (Sciences Po-Paris/Northwestern University) and our own Igor Štiks (CITSEE research fellow) under the title: “Croatian Citizenship: From Ethnic Engineering to Inclusiveness”.

The politics of citizenship in post-Yugoslav Croatia are deeply marked by the political climate in which they emerged. Almost all of Yugoslavia’s successor states – with some variation according to their specific context and at a different pace – used their founding documents, constitutions and citizenship laws as effective tools to accelerate nation-building and to ‘ethnically engineer’ their populations to the advantage of the majority ethnic group.

As shown by Ragazzi and Štiks, Croatia in the 1990s was no exception to this rule. With the death of Franjo Tudjman in 1999 and the subsequent electoral defeat of his party (HDZ), the beginning of 2000 marked a sharp contrast with the practices of the previous decade. Owing in part to the democratic changes within Croatian politics and to Croatia’s bid for EU membership, the implementation of the citizenship laws began to demonstrate more inclusiveness towards ethnic non-Croats, although the law on citizenship itself remained unchanged. The case of Croatia demonstrates how sticks and carrots employed by the EU could alter relations between a nationalising state and its internal minorities as well as between a kin state and its ethnic diaspora in the ‘near abroad’. At the same time, it shows how the latter relations can be preserved within the institutional framework of the EU.

Ragazzi and Štiks therefore conclude that we can see parallel attempts to integrate a country into the supranational institutions of the EU, to democratise its political life and to demonstrate political and social inclusiveness towards ethnic minorities, but also to maintain a transnational ethnic community by using ethno-centric citizenship laws.

The original paper was published as a chapter in Citizenship Policies in the New Europe (Edited by R. Bauböck, B. Perchinig & W. Sievers; Expanded and Updated Edition; Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009) and is now available for download here.

A slightly updated version, together with other materials related to citizenship legislation and practices in Croatia, is also available on the European Union Observatory on Citizenship (EUDO Citizenship) website.